Each instrument within the orchestral string family has its own distinct character and role, creating a harmonious melody when played in concert. Each plays a pivotal part in composing the symphony’s overall sound, from the highest notes of the violin to the rich, resonant undertones of the double bass. This comprehensive article delves into the attributes, roles, and beautiful music these diverse instruments produce.
Typically, a symphony orchestra features five key string instruments – the violin, viola, cello, double bass, and harp. These five are the mainstay of any orchestra, contributing significantly to its musical range and depth. Let’s explore each of these classic string instruments in detail.
Undeniably, the violin is often seen as the star of the orchestra. It stands out due to its unique high-pitched notes, often leading the melody in a symphonic performance. Despite being the smallest in the string family, measuring approximately 24 inches, the violin can certainly make its presence felt with its vibrant tonal range.
The violin contingent is usually the largest in any orchestra, with some of the world’s most renowned orchestras employing 30 or even more violinists. Within this group, musicians are typically divided into two sections: the first and second violins. While the first violins primarily carry the melody, the second violins alternate between melody and harmony, adding depth and complexity to the overall musical composition.
Resembling the violin in shape, the viola, however, possesses a deeper tonal range due to its slightly larger size. Typically measuring over two feet long, the viola is wider than a violin, producing a richer, warmer sound. The viola often plays the role of the alto voice within an orchestra, creating a harmonious blend with the other string instruments.
An orchestra typically includes between 10 to 14 violists. Despite predominantly playing the harmony, there are instances where violas take center stage with beautifully expressive solos. Like the violin, the viola is held between the chin and shoulder, with the left hand fingering notes on the four strings along the neck while the right hand controls the bow.
Sharing a similar shape with the violin and viola, the cello’s larger stature – over four feet – sets it apart. The cello is known for its deep, resonant sound that is often compared to the human voice. It is played while seated, with the body resting between the legs and the neck resting alongside the musician’s left shoulder and neck.
Typically, an orchestra will have between eight and twelve cellists. They are versatile, playing melody and harmony and frequently providing a rich, harmonic accompaniment to the violins. Although often seen in a supportive role, the cello has gained prominence as a solo instrument, with works like Bach’s Cello Suites topping the classical music charts.
As the largest member of the string family, the double bass brings an imposing presence to the orchestra. Standing over six feet long, it is usually played standing up or seated on a stool for some players. The double bass produces the deepest tones in the orchestra, often providing a solid foundational layer for the rest of the orchestra to build upon.
The double bass parts are played an octave below the cellos, providing a robust, rhythmic underpinning that supports the orchestra’s overall sound. Despite its predominantly rhythmic role in classical music, the double bass can be played in other genres with more percussive techniques, such as plucking and slapping.
While not a regular orchestra member, the harp brings a celestial touch to the musical ensemble whenever it is included. Shaped like a number 7, the harp boasts 47 strings tuned to correspond with the white keys of a piano. It stands approximately six feet tall, and harpists play it sitting down, plucking the strings perpendicular to their body.
The harp’s pedals enable players to adjust the string lengths to play sharps and flats, corresponding to the black keys on a piano. Though not often featured in orchestral compositions, when it is, the harp is widely appreciated for its soothing, ethereal sound that brings a unique dimension to the orchestra.
Having introduced the main string instruments in the orchestral ensemble, let’s dive deeper into their unique characteristics, construction, and sound production. This exploration will provide a deeper appreciation of each instrument’s individuality and contributions to the orchestral symphony.
Despite their small size, violins are renowned for their mighty impact on orchestral music. Constructed from specialized woods like spruce and maple, the violin’s exquisite craftsmanship is a testament to the fine balance between form and function.
The violin comprises four strings, tuned in perfect fifths to the notes G, D, A, and E. With the highest pitch in the string family, the violin’s strings are typically played with a bow made from horsehair, although plucking, known as “pizzicato”, is also used in certain compositions. The bowing and plucking techniques give the violin the ability to produce a variety of sounds, from the most tender and soft notes to powerful, soaring melodies.
With its larger size and deeper tone, the viola serves as a harmonious bridge between the violin’s high notes and the cello’s lower ones. Like the violin, violas are made from specific types of wood, typically spruce for the top, and maple for the back, sides, and neck, contributing to their warm and resonant sound.
The viola has four strings tuned to the notes C, G, D, and A. This tuning, a perfect fifth lower than the violin, allows the viola to deliver rich, mellow tones. The instrument’s diverse range is often employed to provide depth and harmony, underscoring the more dominant melodies.
The cello, owing to its larger size, delivers a wide range of tonal richness. Made from the same type of wood as the violin and viola, the cello’s resonant and warm sound is often compared to the human voice. Compared to the violin and viola, the cello’s larger body allows for a broader tonal range, from high, sweet notes to deep, sonorous tones.
Cellos have four strings tuned to the notes C, G, D, and A. This range allows them to fill in the middle ground of orchestral arrangements. Cellists alternate between bowing the strings and striking them (pizzicato) to create a wide spectrum of musical expressions.
The double bass is a musical giant that adds depth and substance to the orchestral sound. With a structure similar to the violin but on a much larger scale, the double bass’s four strings are tuned an octave lower than the cello’s, producing the lowest pitches in the string family.
The deep, rich tones of the double bass provide a rhythmic and harmonic foundation for the orchestra. Double bassists typically use bowing and pizzicato techniques to enhance the musical texture. The double bass sound is resonant and imposing, giving gravity to the overall orchestral sound.
The harp adds an ethereal, almost otherworldly sound to the orchestra. Unlike the other string instruments in an orchestra, the harp is plucked rather than bowed. Its strings are arranged in a vertical plane and span a wide range of pitches comparable to a piano’s.
Constructed primarily of wood, the harp comprises a soundboard, a neck (where the intricate mechanism of levers for changing pitch is housed), and a pillar to support the tension of the strings. The resulting sounds from a harp range from delicate, sparkling notes to dramatic, resonant glissandi, offering the orchestra an expansive palette of tonal color.
Apart from the classical quintet of string instruments in orchestras, a new breed of string instruments is gradually finding its place in the modern symphony. Instruments like the guitar, erhu, nyckelharpa, psaltery, domra, and balalaika offer unique sounds and textures, broadening the sonic horizons of orchestral music.
From the guitar’s plucked nylon strings to the haunting, soulful sound of the erhu, these instruments add unique dimensions to orchestral music. As we continue to embrace diverse musical influences, these “guest instruments” play a significant role in creating fresh, innovative symphonies.
The orchestral string family is indeed a fascinating realm to explore. With their unique characteristics and sounds, these instruments work together to create the harmonious symphony we enjoy. Whether you are a musician, a student of music, or simply an enthusiast, we hope this deep dive has given you a new appreciation for the orchestral string family.